Welcome to Kenway dental care

Welcome to Kenway Dental. We are excited to introduce you to our site and keep you informed about our practice in the heart of Scarborough. Our expertly trained team is devoted to providing personalized attention and unparalleled dental care to every patient.

The staff at Kenway Dental Care is a carefully selected group, committed to providing you with the best service in dental care. The dentist, hygienists, assistants and administration teams offer over 30 years of combined experience. They will work together with you to create, achieve and improve your confidence and self-image. Our team will make your dental experience a pleasurable one

Archive for August 2014

Source: Wikipedia
 

Oral cancer is a subtype of head and neck cancer, is any cancerous tissue growth located in the oral cavity. It may arise as a primary lesion originating in any of the oral tissues, by metastasis from a distant site of origin, or by extension from a neighboring anatomic structure, such as the nasal cavity. Alternatively, the oral cancers may originate in any of the tissues of the mouth, and may be of varied histologic types: teratoma, adenocarcinoma derived from a major or minor salivary gland, lymphoma from tonsillar or other lymphoid tissue, or melanoma from the pigment-producing cells of the oral mucosa. There are several types of oral cancers, but around 90% are squamous cell carcinomas, originating in the tissues that line the mouth and lips. Oral or mouth cancer most commonly involves the tongue. It may also occur on the floor of the mouth, cheek lining, gingiva (gums), lips, or palate (roof of the mouth). Most oral cancers look very similar under the microscope and are called squamous cell carcinoma.


Signs and symptoms

 
  • Skin lesion, lump, or ulcer that do not resolve in 14 days located on the tongue, lip, or other mouth areas
  • Usually small
  • Most often pale colored, be dark or discolored
  • Early sign may be a white patch (leukoplakia) or a red patch (erythroplakia) on the soft tissues of the mouth
  • Usually painless initially
  • May develop a burning sensation or pain when the tumor is advanced
  • Behind the wisdom tooth
  • Even behind the ear
  • Additional symptoms that may be associated with this disease:
  • Tongue problems
  • Swallowing difficulty
  • Mouth sores
  • Pain and paraesthesia are late symptoms.


Causes


Oncogenes are activated as a result of mutation of the DNA. Risk factors that predispose a person to oral cancer have been identified in epidemiological (epidemiology) studies. India being member of International Cancer Genome Consortium is leading efforts to map oral cancer's complete genome.

It is important to note that around 75 percent of oral cancers are linked to modifiable behaviors such as tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption. Other factors include poor oral hygiene, irritation caused by ill-fitting dentures and other rough surfaces on the teeth, poor nutrition, and some chronic infections caused by bacteria or viruses. If oral cancer is diagnosed in its earliest stages, treatment is generally very effective.

In many Asian cultures chewing betel, paan and Areca is known to be a strong risk factor for developing oral cancer. In India where such practices are common, oral cancer represents up to 40% of all cancers, compared to just 4% in the UK.

Oral cancer often presents as a non-healing ulcer (shows no sign of healing after 2 weeks). In the US oral cancer accounts for about 8 percent of all malignant growths. Men are affected twice as often as women, particularly men older than 40/60.


Tobacco


Smoking and other tobacco use are associated with about 75 percent of oral cancer cases, caused by irritation of the mucous membranes of the mouth from smoke and heat of cigarettes, cigars, and pipes. Tobacco contains over 60 known carcinogens, and the combustion of it, and by-products from this process, is the primary mode of involvement. Use of chewing tobacco or snuff causes irritation from direct contact with the mucous membranes.

Tobacco use in any form by itself, and even more so in combination with heavy alcohol consumption, continues to be an important risk factor for oral cancer. However, due to the current trends in the spread of HPV16, as of early 2011 the virus is now considered the primary causative factor in 63% of newly diagnosed patients.

 

Alcohol


Use of alcohol and other toxic liquids is another high-risk activity associated with oral cancer. There is known to be a very strong synergistic effect on oral cancer risk when a person is both a heavy smoker and drinker. The risk is greatly increased compared to a heavy smoker, or a heavy drinker alone. Recent studies in Australia, Brazil and Germany point to alcohol-containing mouthwashes as also being etiologic agents in the oral cancer risk family. Constant exposure to these alcohol containing rinses, even in the absence of smoking and drinking, lead to significant increases in the development of oral cancer. However, studies conducted in 1985, 1995, and 2003 summarize that alcohol-containing mouth rinses are not associated with oral cancer. In a March 2009 brief, the American Dental Association said "the available evidence does not support a connection between oral cancer and alcohol-containing mouthrinse". A 2008 study suggests that acetaldehyde (a breakdown product of alcohol) is implicated in oral cancer. This study specifically focused on abusers of alcohol and made no reference to mouthwash. Any connection between oral cancer and mouthwash is tenuous without further investigation.